From March Bee Culture, by Kirsten Traynor and Dennis vanEngelsdorp, pg 38:
“A new study is the first to systematically assess multiple pesticides that accumulate within bee colonies. The researchers found that the number of different pesticides within a colony – regardless of dose – closely correlates with colony death. …
“The addition of more compounds somehow overwhelms the bees’ ability to detoxify themselves. …
“A total of 93 different pesticide compounds found their way into the colonies over the course of the season…
“The fungicides most closely linked to queen deaths and colony mortality disrupted sterols – compounds that are essential for fungal development and survival. …
“All colonies with high pesticide contamination in the wax lost a queen during the beekeeping season. …
“The research team did not find a significant contribution from neonicotinoid pesticides.”
See Nature Scientific Reports, “In-hive Pesticide Exposome: Assessing risks to migratory honey bees from in-hive pesticide contamination in the Eastern United States”

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